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  • Writer's pictureJere Folgert

The Role of Earthworms in Cultivating Hardneck Garlic

Updated: May 29

Operation: Subterranean Worm Search!

But before we "dig around" and into the fascinating world of Earthworms, the subterranean superstars, let's conduct a fun field experiment. Grab your trusty excavation tool (a shovel, perhaps?) and transform yourselves into scientific earth detectives. If you are at work, this science experiment can wait until you get home! Don your protective footwear – boots for a possible mud encounter, or shoes for a sun-drenched excavation. Now, venture forth to a designated plot within your garden domain. This will be our ground zero for the worm census. Don't worry about meticulous precision! Just dig a nice, deep hole approximately 8 to 12 inches deep. Consider this a portal to the hidden world below!

The Moment of Truth:

Peer into the abyss... of your newly formed soil hole, that is. Do your keen eyes detect any slithering segments of pink or brown wriggling amongst the earthen clods? If a chorus of tiny wiggles greets you, then let out a triumphant cheer!  Your garden boasts a thriving population of these subterranean superstars, a testament to the fertile and healthy ecosystem you've cultivated. These tireless earthworm battalions are diligently aerating the soil, decomposing organic matter, and enriching the earth with vital nutrients – all contributing to a bountiful harvest in the future!

No Worms? Fear Not the Fallow Field:

However, if the depths of your excavation reveal none of these wiggling wonders, fret not, intrepid explorer! The absence of earthworms doesn't spell ecological doom for your garden. It simply indicates a potential opportunity for improvement. Read on, as we learn the fascinating science behind these subterranean superstars and explore methods to attract them to your flourishing plot, transforming it into a thriving oasis! Worms are the unsung heroes of the garden, tirelessly working to aerate the soil, break down organic matter, and enrich the earth with nutrients.


Move over, Mr. Squiggles, because this article is about to shine a spotlight on the unsung heroes of the soil - earthworms. Now, don't get us wrong, the underground party doesn't stop with these wiggly decomposers. That single tablespoon of dirt you're holding might be a microscopic mosh pit teeming with billions of bacteria, protozoa, and enough nematodes to make your head spin. We're talking about mites munching on fungi, springtails springing through the gaps, and even rotifers having rotifer raves. It's a hidden metropolis with more residents than your largest city. In this article, we will be focusing on earthworms, the fascinating world of these soil superstars.

Imagine having a secret army working tirelessly underground, boosting your garden's health and vitality. That's exactly what happens when you add a mix of worms to your soil. These wriggling wonders create a network of tunnels, enhancing soil aeration and water infiltration. This means your plant roots can breathe easier and absorb more water, leading to robust growth and vibrant health. Worms are nature's expert decomposers. They break down organic matter into nutrient-rich castings, a natural fertilizer that supercharges nutrient availability and soil fertility. Their activity also helps form soil aggregates, improving soil structure and water retention while reducing erosion. Plus, the beneficial microbes in worm castings can suppress plant diseases, boosting plant immunity and resilience.

Earthworms, often regarded as the humble inhabitants of our gardens, play a pivotal role in maintaining soil health and fertility. When it comes to growing hardneck garlic, these wriggly creatures are nothing short of essential. Together, let us look at the fascinating world of earthworms, their impact on soil dynamics, interesting facts about worms, and why their presence is crucial for the successful cultivation of robust, beautiful, and flavorful hardneck garlic.

In the vibrant ecosystem of a garden growing hardneck garlic, earthworms are the unsung heroes working tirelessly beneath the surface. These subterranean superstars perform a multitude of tasks that are essential for the thriving growth of garlic. As they burrow through the soil, their long, slender bodies create intricate networks of tunnels that aerate the soil, ensuring that garlic roots receive ample oxygen. They munch on decaying organic matter, which passes through their digestive system and emerges as nutrient-rich castings – nature's own fertilizer. This organic treasure trove boosts the soil's fertility, providing hardneck garlic with the essential nutrients it needs to develop robust, flavorful bulbs. Additionally, earthworms enhance soil structure, improving its water-holding capacity and preventing compaction, which is vital for the delicate roots of garlic. Without these industrious invertebrates, the garden soil would be less fertile, less aerated, and less hospitable for hardneck garlic.

What Are Earthworms?

Earthworms are segmented worms belonging to the phylum Annelida. These invertebrates are renowned for their ability to transform organic material into rich, fertile soil. They are tube-shaped, reddish-brown creatures that can range from a few centimeters to several meters in length, depending on the species. Belonging to the phylum Annelida (think "annelid" athletes, because these guys are about to rock your soil!), earthworms are superstar decomposers. Imagine a tiny factory under your feet. That's what an earthworm basically is. They're segmented, meaning their bodies are like long tunnels divided into rings. Each ring packs a punch of muscle, which they use to wiggle through the soil. As they munch on dead leaves and other organic stuff, they poop out these amazing castings (fancy word for worm poop) that act like super fertilizer for plants.

Earthworms, are fascinating little invertebrates, and are cold-blooded creatures without a backbone, making them part of the vast and diverse phylum Annelida. Despite lacking lungs, earthworms possess a highly efficient circulatory system with blood vessels and a simple heart-like structure that pumps blood throughout their segmented bodies. When you touch a worm and it curls up and wiggles, it's a defensive reflex to potential threats, driven by a network of sensitive nerve cells that detect vibrations and pressure changes. The clear slime you observe on worms and nightcrawlers is a protective mucus they secrete, which keeps their skin moist for respiration, as they absorb oxygen directly through their skin. This mucus also aids in movement through the soil, reducing friction and providing a layer of defense against harmful microorganisms.

What Are NightCrawlers?

Nightcrawlers, the nocturnal ambassadors of the soil, share a familial bond with earthworms, both belonging to the Lumbricidae family. While earthworms toil tirelessly beneath the soil's surface, nightcrawlers emerge under the cloak of darkness, their robust bodies traversing the earth with purposeful intent. Despite their distinct nocturnal habits, nightcrawlers and earthworms share common ground in their roles as soil engineers, enriching the earth with their burrowing prowess and digestive alchemy. In the realm of hardneck garlic cultivation, nightcrawlers play a pivotal role in soil health and fertility, their voracious appetites for organic matter and detritus fostering nutrient cycling and humus formation. As they tunnel through the soil, aerating and loosening its structure, nightcrawlers create pathways for garlic roots to explore, facilitating water infiltration and nutrient absorption. Furthermore, their castings, nutrient-rich excreta teeming with beneficial microorganisms, enrich the soil matrix, providing a fertile substrate for robust garlic growth. Thus, in the intricate dance of soil and plant, nightcrawlers emerge as indispensable allies, their nocturnal endeavors laying the groundwork for flourishing hardneck garlic crops and vibrant, resilient garden ecosystems.

Types of Earthworms in Garden Soil

There are three main ecological categories of earthworms commonly found in garden soils:

  1. Epigeic Earthworms: These worms live on the soil surface, primarily in leaf litter and decomposing organic matter. They are small, quick, and play a crucial role in breaking down surface organic material.

  2. Endogeic Earthworms: These worms reside in the upper layers of the soil and create horizontal burrows. They are responsible for mixing soil and organic matter, enhancing soil structure and fertility.

  3. Anecic Earthworms: These are the deep burrowers, such as the common nightcrawler. They create vertical burrows that can reach several feet into the soil, helping with aeration and water infiltration.

The Role of Earthworms in the Soil for Growing Hardneck Garlic

Earthworms, often heralded as nature's architects, wield profound influence over soil properties and processes, profoundly impacting the optimal growing conditions for hardneck garlic. Their multifaceted contributions to soil health and fertility create a veritable paradise for garlic cultivation.

Firstly, earthworms engage in soil aeration through their burrowing activities, creating intricate networks of channels that allow vital air to permeate the soil matrix. This aeration is a boon for hardneck garlic, whose roots thrive in well-oxygenated soil environments, facilitating nutrient uptake and robust growth.

Secondly, earthworms orchestrate the intricate symphony of nutrient cycling, consuming organic matter and transforming it into a nutrient-rich elixir through their digestive alchemy. This process enriches the soil with essential elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, providing the vital building blocks for garlic development.

Thirdly, earthworms contribute to soil structure refinement, their tireless movement through the soil blending layers and distributing organic matter evenly. This promotes the formation of soil aggregates, fostering a fluffy, friable soil texture ideal for garlic root penetration and expansion.

Fourthly, their burrowing activities enhance water infiltration and drainage, crucial for maintaining optimal soil moisture levels for hardneck garlic cultivation, while mitigating the risk of waterlogging and root diseases.

Lastly, earthworm castings, rich in beneficial microbes, serve as microbial hotspots, catalyzing the decomposition of organic matter and nutrient release in forms readily accessible to garlic roots. In essence, earthworms are the unsung heroes of the garlic garden, their diligent labor beneath the surface laying the foundation for flourishing crops and abundant harvests of flavorful hardneck garlic.

Earthworms are often called "ecosystem engineers" because of their profound impact on soil properties and processes. Here’s a detailed look at what they do in the soil:

  1. Soil Aeration: As earthworms burrow, they create channels that allow air to penetrate the soil. This aeration is crucial for the roots of hardneck garlic, which require well-oxygenated soil for optimal growth.

  2. Nutrient Cycling: Earthworms consume organic matter, which includes decomposed leaves, grass, and other plant material. As this material passes through their digestive system, it is broken down into simpler compounds, enriching the soil with essential nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

  3. Soil Structure: The physical movement of earthworms through the soil helps to mix soil layers and distribute organic matter evenly. Their burrowing activity also promotes the formation of soil aggregates, which improves soil texture and reduces compaction.

  4. Water Infiltration: The channels created by earthworms enhance water infiltration and drainage. This is particularly beneficial for hardneck garlic, which prefers well-drained soil to prevent root diseases.

  5. Microbial Activity: Earthworm castings (their excrement) are rich in beneficial microbes that further decompose organic matter and release nutrients in forms that plants can readily absorb.

Do Earthworms have Teeth?

Earthworms may not sport a flashy smile because—surprise—they don't have teeth. Imagine an earthworm with braces! Instead, these wriggly wonders employ a method so clever it would impress any scientist: they munch through soil and organic matter using a muscular gizzard, akin to a tiny internal mortar and pestle. Earthworms consume gritty particles and organic debris, which their gizzard grinds into digestible bits. This pseudo-stomach, lined with a hard cuticle, pulverizes food with the help of ingested stones, acting like nature’s own blender. It's a bit like eating your sandwich with a mouthful of gravel—efficient if not exactly appetizing. Earthworms are nature's tiny, toothless vacuum cleaners. Instead of gnashing away at dirt and leaves, they use a muscular party trick called suction, thanks to their powerful pharynx. But fear not, science enthusiasts! This lack of teeth is more than compensated for by a hardcore internal grinder called a gizzard, lined with grit and pebbles they collect as they burrow. They may never need a dentist, earthworms certainly know how to make the most of a gritty situation.

Composting and Garden Soil Health

Ever toss an apple core or banana peel in the trash, feeling a twinge of guilt?  Well, fret no more!  Did you know that the average American trashes enough food scraps each year to create a mountain the weight of a car (yikes!)?  But here's the super cool part: vermicomposting, also known as worm composting, can transform these discards into a superhero for your garden. Here is what we can do. Employ a tiny army of wigglers, chomping away at your food scraps. These aren't your slimy earthworm nightcrawlers (though those are cool too!). Vermicompost stars are the red wiggler worms (Eisenia Eisenia for their scientific fans), enthusiastic eaters that turn your waste into nutrient-rich castings, aka worm poop.

But how exactly do these little guys create garden gold?

  • Worm Power!  Red wigglers are nature's tiny recyclers.  They gobble up food scraps, breaking them down with their amazing digestive systems.  The result? Super nutritious worm castings packed with minerals and beneficial microbes.

  • Happy Soil, Happy Garlic Plants!  These castings are like a spa treatment for your soil.  They improve drainage and aeration, allowing plant roots to breathe easy.  Plus, the castings are loaded with nutrients that plants crave, making your garden flourish with vibrant blooms and delicious veggies.

So, it's a win-win-win!

  • You reduce food waste and keep landfills a little less grumpy.

  • Your red wiggler crew enjoys a delicious buffet.

  • Your garden gets a powerful boost, thanking you with a show-stopping display of flowers and fruits.

Not to mention, vermicomposting is a fantastic science experiment for curious minds!  You can watch the worms wiggle, observe how the food decomposes, and witness the transformation of waste into nutrient-rich treasure.

Super Speedy Soil Munchers: The Astonishing Earthworms

Earthworms, often dubbed nature's plowmen, are true marvels of soil engineering, capable of consuming their own body weight in soil each and every day! These industrious invertebrates have evolved an efficient and fascinating digestive system tailored for their subterranean lifestyle. As they tunnel through the earth, their muscular bodies drive soil through their alimentary canal, a tube running the length of their body that serves as both a digestive and absorptive organ.

The journey begins at the mouth, where the earthworm ingests soil and organic matter. The material then travels through the pharynx and into the esophagus, before reaching the crop, a storage compartment where it is temporarily held. From there, the soil moves into the gizzard, a muscular structure filled with tiny stones and grit that grind the soil and organic matter into finer particles—a process remarkably similar to a bird's digestion. Once the material is finely ground, it enters the intestine, where a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms helps break down the organic matter further. Here, enzymes produced by the earthworm and its microbial partners decompose the organic material, releasing nutrients that the earthworm absorbs through its intestinal walls. This process not only nourishes the worm but also transforms the ingested soil into nutrient-rich castings, or worm poop, which is then expelled back into the soil.

Worm Castings. Worm Poop.

Ever wondered what goes in and out of a worm? Well, prepare to be amazed, because worm castings, also known as vermicompost, are like tiny black gold nuggets for your garden. These aren't just digested dirt – as our wiggly friends munch on organic matter, their gut factories churn out castings packed with beneficial microbes, enzymes, and plant nutrients. It's like a microscopic recycling center, taking leftovers and turning them into supercharged plant food.

To create this black gold, all you need is a worm bin, some bedding like shredded paper, and a steady stream of food scraps (avoid meat and dairy though, as these can attract unwanted guests).  Pretty soon, your worm crew will be busy transforming your kitchen waste into a potent plant fertilizer. Remember, happy worms mean happy castings, so keep their bin moist and aerated for best results.  The coolest part? Unlike synthetic fertilizers, worm castings won't burn your hardneck garlic plants – they're like a gentle, slow-release nutrient booster. So, ditch the chemical stuff and embrace the power of poop – worm poop, that is!

These castings are gold for gardeners and farmers alike. Rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other essential nutrients, worm castings enhance soil fertility, improve soil structure, and boost plant growth. This natural recycling system effectively breaks down complex organic materials, such as dead leaves and plant debris, into simpler compounds that plants can readily absorb. Beyond their digestive prowess, earthworms contribute significantly to soil aeration and drainage. As they burrow, they create extensive networks of tunnels that allow air and water to penetrate deeper into the soil. This tunneling activity reduces soil compaction, promotes root growth, and fosters a healthier, more resilient ecosystem. Soils with healthy earthworm populations, tend to be more fertile, better structured, and more capable of supporting robust plant life. Consequently, the presence of earthworms is often used as an indicator of soil health.

Why are Earthworms Long and Slender?

Earthworms exhibit a long, slender, cylindrical shape, which is highly adapted for their burrowing lifestyle. This elongated form allows them to efficiently move through soil, creating tunnels that aerate and mix the earth. Lacking teeth, earthworms have a small, muscular mouth located at the anterior end, which they use to ingest soil and organic matter. The mouth opens into a pharynx that acts like a suction pump, drawing food into the digestive tract. Within the belly, or digestive system, the ingested material passes through the esophagus into the crop and gizzard, where it is ground up with the aid of small, gritty particles ingested from the soil. Nutrient absorption occurs in the intestine, where digestive enzymes break down organic matter. Undigested material is excreted as castings through the anus, located at the posterior end. These castings are nutrient-rich and contribute to soil fertility, completing the earthworm's role as a crucial decomposer in the ecosystem.

How Much Soil and Dirt Can a Worm Move in One Year?

The amount of soil that a single earthworm can move in a year can vary widely based on the species of the worm, the type of soil, and environmental conditions. One red wiggler worm is a tireless tunneler, but let's be honest, they're not exactly hauling dump trucks full of dirt. In a year, a single worm might move the equivalent of a small coffee cup's worth of soil – impressive for a creature the size of your pinky, but not exactly earthquake-inducing. But here's the beauty of nature: they work in teams! Imagine 10,000 of these little guys going to town – that's a wriggling, squirming army turning your soil into a fluffy paradise. That kind of teamwork could move enough dirt to fill a bathtub... per day! Over a year, that's enough to bury a whole house! Talk about ambitious earthworms.

Now, for the real mind-blower: that mountain of dirt would weigh roughly the same as 28 Tesla Model X cars. That's right, your worm brigade could create a dirt graveyard for nearly thirty luxury electric vehicles. As for the dirt particles themselves, they're not exactly carrying a charge like a battery. But they do have tiny electrical attractions that help them clump together and form the foundation of healthy soil. So, while your worm crew isn't building a subterranean Tesla supercharger station, they are creating a masterpiece of nature's own design.

Earthworms and Roundup Weed Killer (Glyphosate).

When an earthworm ingests organic matter or soil containing trace amounts of Roundup Weed Killer (glyphosate) or other herbicides, several biochemical and ecological processes are affected. Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup, inhibits the shikimate pathway, a metabolic route essential for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants, bacteria, and fungi. Exposure to glyphosate can disrupt the gut microbiota of earthworms, which rely on symbiotic microorganisms for digestion. Studies have shown that even at low concentrations, glyphosate can impair the growth, reproduction, and enzymatic activity of earthworms, indicating a potential risk to soil health. Glyphosate residues can persist in the soil for varying durations, typically ranging from a few days to several years, depending on environmental conditions such as microbial activity, soil composition, and climatic factors. The persistence of glyphosate and its metabolites in the soil can lead to prolonged exposure for soil-dwelling organisms, potentially affecting soil fertility and ecosystem functions. Thus, while glyphosate is designed to target plant pathways, its indirect effects on non-target soil organisms like earthworms and the broader soil ecosystem raise significant ecological concerns. In other words, don't use Roundup in your garden.

Earthworms Don't Like Very Wet Soil. When earthworms are exposed to very wet soil conditions, their physiological and behavioral responses are driven by the need to avoid anoxic (oxygen-deprived) environments. Earthworms breathe through their skin via diffusion, which requires a moist surface but also adequate oxygen availability. In saturated soils, oxygen diffusion is impeded, creating hypoxic conditions that can be lethal to earthworms. Consequently, after a heavy rainstorm, earthworms migrate to the soil surface to access higher oxygen levels and avoid drowning. This behavior, known as positive phototaxis, exposes them to the risk of desiccation and predation. The presence of earthworms on sidewalks and roads after rainfall is a survival strategy to escape hypoxia. Additionally, the moist conditions on these surfaces temporarily reduce the risk of dehydration, facilitating their surface migration. However, this behavior also makes them vulnerable to traffic and environmental hazards once the surface dries, illustrating a complex trade-off between avoiding hypoxic stress and other environmental risks.

What Happens to Earthworms in Cold, Freezing Winters?

When earthworms are exposed to deep freezing conditions such as those experienced at GroEat Garlic Farm in Bozeman, Montana, where ambient air temperatures can plummet to nearly -50°F (-45.6°C), they undergo physiological adaptations to survive extreme cold. Earthworms are ectothermic organisms, meaning their internal body temperature mirrors that of their surroundings. In response to freezing temperatures, earthworms enter a state of dormancy known as cryoanesthesia, where metabolic activity is drastically reduced to conserve energy. Cryoanesthesia allows earthworms to endure freezing temperatures by minimizing cellular damage caused by ice crystal formation.

Additionally, earthworms produce antifreeze compounds such as glycerol and glucose, which act as cryoprotectants to prevent ice formation within their tissues. These adaptations enable earthworms to survive deep freezing conditions by avoiding lethal ice formation and maintaining cellular integrity. However, prolonged exposure to extreme cold can still pose risks, including tissue damage and mortality, particularly if the freezing period exceeds the earthworms' physiological limits. Therefore, while earthworms possess remarkable adaptations for surviving freezing conditions, their survival ultimately depends on the severity and duration of the cold exposure.

My Shovel Just Cut an Earthworm in Half!

When an earthworm is cut in half, its ability to survive and regenerate depends on the location of the cut and the species of the worm. Earthworms have a segmented body with a head end (anterior) and a tail end (posterior). The anterior segment, which contains the vital organs including the brain, aortic arches (hearts), and reproductive organs, is crucial for survival. If the worm is cut posterior to these critical organs, the head end has the potential to regenerate a new tail. However, the tail end, lacking essential organs, typically does not survive. Regeneration involves the formation of a blastema, a mass of cells capable of growth and differentiation, at the wound site. This process, governed by cellular mechanisms including dedifferentiation and mitosis, can take several weeks. Complete regeneration results in a new, functional posterior segment, although it may not be as long or as complex as the original. This remarkable regenerative capability underscores the earthworm's resilience and its evolutionary adaptations for survival.

Earthworms and Organic Matter: A Symbiotic Relationship

Organic matter is the lifeblood of a thriving earthworm population. It provides the necessary food source for these creatures. If the soil lacks organic matter, earthworms will struggle to survive and reproduce. For gardeners growing hardneck garlic, incorporating organic matter such as compost, aged manure, and leaf mulch is essential. This not only feeds the earthworms but also directly benefits the garlic by improving soil structure and fertility.

The Specific Benefits for Hardneck Garlic

Hardneck garlic (Allium sativum var. ophioscorodon) is a type of garlic known for its robust flavor and hard central stalk. It thrives in soil that is rich in organic matter, well-drained, and well-aerated—all conditions that earthworms help to create. Here’s how earthworms specifically benefit hardneck garlic:

  1. Improved Root Penetration: The burrowing action of earthworms creates a network of channels that garlic roots can easily penetrate, leading to stronger and more extensive root systems.

  2. Enhanced Nutrient Availability: Earthworm castings provide a steady supply of nutrients that are readily available to garlic plants, promoting healthy growth and high yields.

  3. Disease Suppression: Healthy, well-aerated soil with good microbial activity can suppress soil-borne diseases, reducing the risk of ailments that can affect garlic.

Additional Considerations for Gardeners

  • Maintaining Organic Matter: Regularly adding organic matter to your soil is crucial for sustaining earthworm populations. This can be achieved through mulching, composting, and crop rotation.

  • Avoiding Harmful Chemicals: Pesticides and synthetic fertilizers can harm earthworms and reduce their populations. Opt for organic and earthworm-friendly gardening practices.

  • Encouraging Biodiversity: A diverse garden ecosystem supports a healthy earthworm population. Planting cover crops, maintaining a variety of plants, and minimizing soil disturbance all contribute to a thriving soil environment.

How Do Earthworms have Sex and Reproduce?

Earthworms, exemplars of the annelid phylum, employ a fascinating reproductive strategy that reflects their evolutionary adaptability and ecological success. As hermaphrodites, earthworms possess both male and female reproductive organs, enabling them to engage in reciprocal mating behavior. During the intricate courtship ritual, two earthworms align ventrally, their bodies undulating in synchronized movements to facilitate copulation. This intimate exchange culminates in the reciprocal transfer of sperm from each worm's seminal vesicles to the other's spermathecae, ensuring mutual fertilization. Following mating, each earthworm retreats to its subterranean domain to embark on the next phase of reproduction. Here, within the sheltered confines of the soil, a marvel of biological engineering unfolds as each earthworm secretes a gelatinous cocoon from its clitellum, a specialized glandular structure encircling its body. This cocoon serves as a protective capsule, encapsulating a precious cargo of fertilized eggs and a reservoir of sperm, ensuring the perpetuation of their genetic legacy.

Then, the earthworm deposits the cocoon into the fertile embrace of the soil, where it undergoes a remarkable metamorphosis over several weeks. Within the cocoon's nurturing confines, the fertilized eggs develop and hatch into juvenile worms, each equipped with the innate potential to navigate the subterranean labyrinth and perpetuate the timeless cycle of earthworm life. Thus, through this intricate fusion of reproductive biology and ecological adaptation, earthworms perpetuate their lineage, embodying the resilience and ingenuity of life in the hidden realms beneath our feet.

Where Can We Buy Worms? Here are some options for gardeners to purchase earthworms in the United States:

  • Online Retailers:  Several online retailers like Uncle Jim's Worm Farm and Nature's Little Recyclers sell live red wigglers and other composting worms specifically for gardeners.

  • Worm Farms:  Many local worm farms exist throughout the country. These can be a great way to support a small business and get expert advice on the best worm types for your needs. You can find local worm farms through a web search or reaching out to gardening clubs or organizations.

  • Bait Shops: If you're looking for nightcrawlers for fishing or feeding chickens, bait shops are a good option. However, nightcrawlers aren't ideal for long-term composting.

Here are some types of earthworms commonly available to gardeners:

  • Red Wigglers (Eisenia Andrei):  These are the most popular composting worms. They reproduce quickly, thrive in indoor bins, and produce high-quality castings.

  • European Nightcrawlers (Eisenia Hortensis):  Larger than red wigglers, these worms are also good for composting and can be used for fishing.

  • African Nightcrawlers (Eudrilus Eugeniae):  These large nightcrawlers are another option for composting, but they are not as prolific breeders as red wigglers.

Attract Earthworms using Rice and molasses.

Adding a fermented solution of rice water and molasses to soil significantly enhances the microbial and worm populations, catalyzing a robust soil ecosystem. This solution works through a process of fermentation, which enriches it with beneficial microorganisms and nutrients. Rice water is rich in carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals that serve as an excellent food source for soil microbes. Molasses, a byproduct of sugar production, is high in sugars and minerals, which further fuel microbial growth. The fermentation process breaks down these components, making them readily available for soil organisms. When introduced into the soil, this nutrient-dense solution attracts and nourishes beneficial microbes, such as bacteria and fungi, which, in turn, create a hospitable environment for earthworms. These organisms synergistically improve soil structure and fertility: microbes decompose organic matter, releasing nutrients, while earthworms aerate the soil and enhance its porosity through their burrowing activities. The increased microbial activity and worm presence result in improved nutrient cycling, enhanced plant root growth, and greater soil stability, ultimately leading to healthier and more productive plant growth. The application of fermented rice water and molasses is a sustainable and effective method for boosting soil health and fertility.

The Fermentation Process

Fermentation in this context involves the breakdown of organic substances by microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. During fermentation, the carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals present in rice water are metabolized by these microbes. Molasses, being high in sugars and minerals, serves as an additional energy source for these microorganisms. The fermentation process not only increases the microbial biomass but also results in the production of metabolic byproducts like organic acids, enzymes, and bioactive compounds that are beneficial to soil health.

Components and Their Roles

  1. Rice Water: Rich in carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins (such as B vitamins), and minerals (including phosphorus and potassium), rice water acts as a potent food source for soil microorganisms. The carbohydrates serve as a primary energy source, while amino acids and vitamins support microbial growth and activity.

  2. Molasses: A byproduct of sugar production, molasses contains high levels of sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) and trace minerals such as iron, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. The sugars in molasses are particularly effective at promoting rapid microbial growth, as they are easily metabolized by microorganisms.

Fermentation Length: About 30-45 days.

Mechanism of Action in Soil

When the fermented solution is added to soil, it introduces a diverse population of beneficial microbes. These microbes include bacteria (such as Lactobacillus spp. and Bacillus spp.) and fungi (such as Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp.), which play crucial roles in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling.

  1. Microbial Activity: The introduced microbes accelerate the decomposition of organic matter in the soil, breaking down complex organic compounds into simpler forms that are readily available to plants. This process releases essential nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, which are vital for plant growth.

  2. Soil Structure: As microbes break down organic matter, they produce substances that bind soil particles together, improving soil structure and stability. This process enhances soil aeration and water retention, creating a more favorable environment for plant roots.

  3. Earthworm Attraction: The increase in microbial activity and organic matter decomposition attracts earthworms, which are natural soil aerators. Through their burrowing activities, earthworms improve soil porosity and drainage, facilitating deeper root penetration and enhancing the overall soil ecosystem.

Benefits to Soil and Plants

  1. Nutrient Cycling: Enhanced microbial activity ensures efficient nutrient cycling, making nutrients more available to plants. This leads to better plant nutrition and growth.

  2. Soil Fertility: The combined action of microbes and earthworms increases the soil's organic matter content and fertility, supporting sustainable plant production.

  3. Plant Root Growth: Improved soil structure and nutrient availability promote healthier and more extensive root systems, which are crucial for water and nutrient uptake.

  4. Soil Stability: The presence of earthworms and microbial exudates helps bind soil particles, reducing erosion and enhancing soil stability.

Fermented Rice Water and Molasses Solution Recipe

This simple recipe will guide you through creating a nutrient-rich, fermented solution that can be added to garden soil to enhance microbial and worm populations, promoting a healthy and productive soil ecosystem.


  • 1 pound of long-grain rice

  • 12-16 ounces of unsulfured molasses

  • 1 can of black beans (optional)

  • 5-gallon pail with lid

  • Tap water

  • Large Pot and Stove.


  1. Prepare Rice Water:

  • Bring a large pot of water to a boil.

  • Add 1 pound of long-grain rice to the boiling water.

  • Boil the rice for 10 minutes. Ensure there is ample water so that the rice releases its starch into the water.

  • After 10 minutes, drain the rice through a strainer into another container to collect the opaque rice water.

  • Allow the rice water to cool to room temperature.

  1. Add Molasses:

  • Pour the cooled rice water into a 5-gallon pail.

  • Add 12-16 ounces of unsulfured molasses to the rice water.

  • Use warm water to rinse the remaining molasses from the bottle and add this to the pail as well, ensuring no molasses is wasted.

  1. Optional Enhancement:

  • Open a can of black beans and drain the "bean juice" into the rice water and molasses solution. This can provide additional nutrients beneficial for fermentation and soil enrichment.

  1. Complete the Solution:

  • Fill the 5-gallon pail with tap water up to the 5-gallon mark, mixing thoroughly to combine all ingredients.

  • Securely place the lid on the pail to create an environment necessary for fermentation.

  1. Fermentation Process:

  • Place the pail outside in a shaded area.

  • Allow the solution to ferment for 30-45 days. Stir the mixture occasionally (every few days) to ensure even fermentation and prevent any settling.

  1. Application to Soil:

  • After the fermentation period, the solution is ready to use.

  • Add the fermented solution to your garden soil by pouring it around the base of plants or mixing it into the soil.

  • For best results, apply the solution during the early morning or late afternoon to minimize evaporation and maximize absorption.

Tips for Success:

  • Ensure the lid is tightly secured during fermentation to maintain an anaerobic environment.

  • Use unsulfured molasses, as sulfured molasses can inhibit microbial activity.

  • Monitor the fermentation process; a slight sour smell is normal, but a strong foul odor may indicate contamination.

  • Dilute the solution if necessary when applying to delicate plants, as the concentrated solution may be too strong for some young or sensitive plants.

10 Interesting Facts about Earthworms.

Earthworms, the unsung heroes of the soil, harbor a plethora of fascinating traits and behaviors that captivate the scientific community and casual observers alike.

Firstly, their ability to regenerate lost segments is nothing short of remarkable, with some species capable of regrowing a complete tail from a single segment.

Secondly, earthworms possess a sophisticated navigation system facilitated by specialized cells called neurosecretory giant axons, allowing them to sense and respond to environmental cues such as light and moisture gradients.

Thirdly, their digestive system is a marvel of efficiency, featuring a gizzard-like muscular organ that grinds ingested soil and organic matter, followed by enzymatic breakdown in a highly alkaline gut environment.

Fourthly, earthworms exhibit complex social behaviors, forming aggregations during mating and resource exploitation, displaying intricate communication through chemical cues.

Fifthly, their role as ecosystem engineers is profound, shaping soil structure through burrowing activities and enhancing nutrient cycling through their interactions with microbial communities.

Sixthly, earthworms engage in geophagy, consuming soil particles rich in minerals and microbial biomass to supplement their nutrient intake.

Seventhly, their reproductive strategy, involving simultaneous hermaphroditism, intricate courtship rituals, and cocoon production, showcases a fascinating blend of sexual and asexual reproduction.

Eighthly, earthworms exhibit remarkable resilience, with some species capable of surviving extreme environmental conditions, including drought and freezing temperatures.

Ninthly, their ecological significance extends beyond soil health, influencing above-ground ecosystems through interactions with plant roots and soil-dwelling organisms.

Finally, earthworms serve as indicators of environmental quality, with their presence and abundance often used as metrics for assessing soil health and ecosystem integrity. In summation, the world of earthworms is a tapestry woven with threads of complexity, resilience, and ecological importance, inviting further exploration and appreciation of these fascinating creatures dwelling beneath our feet.

10 Interesting Facts about Hardneck Garlic.

Hardneck garlic, Allium sativum var. ophioscorodon, harbors a plethora of captivating features that intrigue scientists and enthusiasts alike, blending scientific marvel with culinary delight.

Firstly, its exquisite flavor profile, shaped by complex sulfur-containing compounds, imparts pungency and depth to culinary creations, captivating palates worldwide.

Secondly, hardneck garlic showcases remarkable adaptability to soil pH variations, with optimal growth typically observed in slightly acidic to neutral soils, highlighting its resilience in diverse environments.

Thirdly, its requirement for high levels of organic matter underscores its role as a bioindicator of soil health, thriving in nutrient-rich soils teeming with microbial life.

Fourthly, hardneck garlic's life cycle, characterized by distinct vegetative and reproductive stages, offers insights into the intricate interplay between environmental cues and plant physiology.

Fifthly, its propagation through bulb division and true seed cultivation presents opportunities for genetic diversity exploration and breeding efforts to enhance disease resistance and flavor profiles.

Sixthly, the formation of scapes, elongated flower stalks bearing bulbils or flowers, showcases the plant's reproductive strategy and offers a culinary bonus with their mild garlic flavor.

Seventhly, the rich history and cultural significance of hardneck garlic, spanning centuries and continents, reflect its enduring allure and culinary indispensability in diverse cuisines.

Eighthly, the intricate biochemical pathways underlying garlic's medicinal properties, including its potential cardiovascular benefits and antimicrobial properties, continue to fascinate researchers exploring its therapeutic potential.

Ninthly, hardneck garlic's role as a companion plant in organic gardening, deterring pests and enhancing soil fertility through allelopathic compounds and root exudates, underscores its multifaceted contributions to sustainable agriculture.

Finally, the symbiotic relationship between hardneck garlic and soil microbiota, particularly mycorrhizal fungi, highlights the interconnectedness of plants and soil organisms in fostering soil health and ecosystem resilience. In essence, hardneck garlic embodies a harmonious fusion of culinary delight, botanical intrigue, and ecological significance, inviting further exploration and appreciation of this humble yet extraordinary plant.

Diverse Array of Life Forms in the Soil. Soil is a dynamic ecosystem teeming with a diverse array of life forms besides garden worms, including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, arthropods, and various plant roots. Bacteria, the most numerous microorganisms in soil, play a pivotal role in decomposing organic matter, fixing nitrogen, and recycling nutrients. Fungi, including mycorrhizae, form symbiotic relationships with plant roots, enhancing water and nutrient uptake. Protozoa and nematodes, though microscopic, contribute to nutrient cycling by preying on bacteria and fungi, releasing nutrients in plant-available forms. Arthropods, such as insects and mites, break down larger organic materials, aiding in decomposition and soil aeration. These organisms interact in a complex web of predator-prey relationships, mutualistic partnerships, and competition, collectively contributing to soil health, structure, and fertility. The interactions among these diverse soil inhabitants facilitate the breakdown of organic matter, enhance soil aeration, and promote nutrient availability, creating a robust environment for plant growth.

Nine (9) Frequently Asked Questions About Earthworms.

  1. What do earthworms eat? Earthworms primarily feed on organic matter such as decaying plant material, dead leaves, and microorganisms present in the soil. They ingest soil along with this organic matter, processing it through their digestive system to extract nutrients.

  2. How do earthworms breathe? Earthworms breathe through their skin via a process called diffusion. Oxygen from the surrounding soil and moisture diffuses into their skin, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of respiration, diffuses out.

  3. Do earthworms have eyes? No, earthworms do not have eyes in the traditional sense. Instead, they possess light-sensitive cells scattered throughout their skin, allowing them to detect changes in light intensity and orient themselves within their environment.

  4. How do earthworms reproduce? Earthworms are hermaphrodites, meaning they possess both male and female reproductive organs. During mating, two earthworms align ventrally and exchange sperm. Each worm then forms a cocoon, which contains fertilized eggs and a capsule of sperm. The cocoon is deposited in the soil, where the eggs develop and hatch into juvenile worms.

  5. What role do earthworms play in the ecosystem? Earthworms are ecosystem engineers, playing a vital role in soil health and fertility. They aerate the soil through their burrowing activities, enhance nutrient cycling by consuming and decomposing organic matter, and facilitate water infiltration and drainage. Additionally, earthworms serve as a food source for various organisms, contributing to biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems.

  6. Can earthworms regenerate if they are cut in half? Contrary to popular belief, most earthworms cannot regenerate into two separate worms if cut in half. However, some species possess regenerative capabilities and may regenerate lost segments under certain conditions.

  7. Are earthworms beneficial for gardening? Yes, earthworms are highly beneficial for gardening. Their burrowing activities improve soil structure, making it more conducive to root growth and water movement. Additionally, their castings enrich the soil with nutrients and beneficial microorganisms, promoting plant health and productivity.

  8. Why do Fish like to Eat Worms? There’s something almost magical about the tradition of fishermen digging for worms with their kids before a big fishing trip. Picture it: dawn’s first light, boots squelching in the dewy grass, and the thrill of unearthing those squiggly treasures. It’s a rite of passage, a hands-on lesson in patience, persistence, and the pure joy of getting dirty. But why do fish go gaga for worms? Well, to a fish, a wriggling worm is the ultimate tantalizing snack—its movement mimics the irresistible dance of a natural prey item. Plus, worms are packed with protein, making them a nutritious feast. So, next time you see a parent and child armed with a shovel and a bucket, know that they’re not just prepping for a fishing trip; they’re bonding over one of nature’s simplest yet most satisfying rituals, all while setting the stage for the perfect fishy feast!

  9. Are Earthworms Edible? Can I Eat a Worm? Imagine sitting down to a gourmet meal where the main course is... worms! Yes, you read that right. Eating worms might sound like a dare from a reality TV show, but in many parts of the world, it's a deliciously sustainable practice. Packed with protein, worms are nutritional powerhouses, enjoyed in places like Thailand, Mexico, and parts of Africa. These little critters, often referred to as "earthy delicacies," have a surprisingly nutty flavor when roasted. Preparing them for the table involves a few crucial steps: first, purging them of any dirt by letting them sit in clean water for a while, then giving them a good rinse. After that, they can be roasted, fried, or even added to soups and stews. So, next time you’re feeling adventurous, remember that worms aren’t just for the garden—they could be the next big thing on your dinner plate!


In the intricate tapestry of the garden ecosystem, earthworms emerge as unsung heroes, wielding profound influence, especially in the cultivation of hardneck garlic. Their subterranean endeavors transcend mere soil manipulation, as they serve as custodians of soil structure, fertility, and microbial activity. Through their tireless burrowing and feeding activities, earthworms aerate the soil, promoting gas exchange and water infiltration, essential for garlic root respiration and nutrient uptake. Furthermore, their voracious appetite for organic matter initiates the breakdown of complex compounds into nutrient-rich humus, a veritable feast for garlic plants. But their significance extends beyond mere soil amendments; earthworms exude mucus rich in beneficial microbes, fostering a symbiotic relationship that fortifies garlic defenses against pathogens and enhances nutrient cycling. Thus, by nurturing earthworm populations, gardeners foster a harmonious alliance that ensures not only bountiful garlic harvests but also the resilience and vitality of the entire garden ecosystem. Earthworms are invaluable allies in the garden, particularly for the cultivation of hardneck garlic. Their ability to enhance soil structure, fertility, and health cannot be overstated. By understanding the vital role these creatures play and taking steps to support their populations, gardeners can ensure bountiful garlic harvests and maintain a thriving, productive garden ecosystem. So next time you spot an earthworm in your soil, remember to give a nod of appreciation to these unsung heroes of the earth. Lets take the time to celebrate their silent contributions and acknowledge them as the soil engineers and guardians that they are. After all, in the intricate dance of soil and plant, earthworms are the unsung maestros, orchestrating a symphony of growth and abundance beneath our very feet.

A Story About Growing Garlic.

"Once upon a time in the scenic mountain town of Bozeman, Montana, lived young identical twin boys named Row and Sen. They were adventurous, curious, and always up for learning something new. That summer, they decided to embark on a gardening adventure: growing hardneck garlic.

Row and Sen ordered their seed garlic from GroEat Farm, a well-known farm in Bozeman, in July. They were thrilled when the package arrived, and they eagerly opened it to find the plump garlic cloves inside. Their dad helped them till a previously unused grassy area in their backyard, transforming it into their new garlic plot. As Halloween approached, the twins dressed up as large, plump garlic bulbs, which made everyone in the neighborhood laugh. Just before heading out for trick-or-treating, they planted about 100 seed garlic (cloves), pointy side up, in their freshly tilled plot. They could hardly wait to see what would happen next.

In Late November, Row and Sen decided to dig up one of the garlic cloves they had planted earlier in the season. To their amazement, they discovered long, angel-hair-like roots sprouting from the bottom of the clove, a sign of healthy growth. As winter set in, temperatures plummeted to nearly -47°F, testing the resilience of their garden. Despite the harsh cold, the sight of those delicate roots remained a hopeful reminder of the life lying dormant beneath the frozen ground.

Spring arrived, and the garlic plants shot up small green shoots, much to the twins' delight. As spring arrived in Montana, Row and Sen braced themselves for more cold temperatures, snow, and freezing conditions. To their surprise, their hardneck garlic plants proved to be much hardier than they had anticipated, standing strong and green amidst the lingering frost. In stark contrast, their tomato plants succumbed to the harsh weather, freezing and dying off early in the season. This unexpected resilience of the garlic offered a glimmer of hope and taught them the true hardiness of these robust plants.

As summer approached, Row and Sen eagerly harvested the garlic scapes, those distinctive "pig-tail shaped" green tubes with their plumb-bob tips. They carefully clipped the scapes, excited to experiment in the kitchen. Mixing the fresh scapes with white "butter beans," fragrant basil, Parmesan cheese, and olive oil, they created the most amazing chip dip. The blend of flavors was a revelation, turning their garlic harvest into a culinary triumph that delighted their taste buds and celebrated the bounty of their garden.

Row and Sen found themselves spending countless hours weeding their garlic patch, an exhausting task that often felt overwhelming. The site had once been grassland, teeming with seeds eager to sprout and compete for nutrients with their precious garlic plants. Determined to give their garlic the best chance to thrive, they painstakingly pulled weeds by hand. In their quest for more efficient methods, they discovered the thrill of weed flaming. Using a torch to burn the weeds and explode their chloroplasts was not only effective but also incredibly fun, adding a fiery excitement to their gardening routine.

By mid-summer, when the bottom three leaves turned yellow and dropped to the ground, Row and Sen knew it was time to harvest. They dug up the garlic and were both excited and a little disappointed to find that most of the bulbs were small, though still tasty.

Determined to do better next year, the twins visited Garden Supply, a store not far from Bozeman. There, they met a very nice girl named Alexis. Alexis had blond hair, a warm smile, and an infectious kindness. She was also incredibly smart, having graduated from a specialized program in plant biology and plant nutrition.

Alexis had what people call a "Green Thumb." She took the time to explain to Row and Sen the importance of soil nutrition. She told them that the key to growing big, healthy garlic bulbs was having rich, well-balanced soil full of organic matter and teeming with life. Alexis taught them about the role of microscopic life forms and worms in the soil. "These tiny creatures help break down organic material, making nutrients available to plants." she explained.

Together, they worked on improving the twins' garlic plot. They added loads of organic material, mature compost, rabbit and steer manure, feather and bone meal, and Azomite. They performed multiple soil tests to ensure they were adding the right nutrients.

"Why is a soil test important?" Row asked one day. "A soil test helps you understand what's already in your soil and what it's lacking," Alexis explained. "It's like a health check-up for your garden. Once you know what your soil needs, you can add the right ingredients to make it perfect for growing garlic."

Over time, the soil became rich and fertile. The twins noticed more worms wriggling through the soil, which was a good sign. "Worms help aerate the soil and break down organic matter, making it easier for plants to take up nutrients." Alexis whispered. The following year, their hardneck garlic crop was amazing. The bulbs were huge, with large cloves and the most incredible flavor. Row and Sen were overjoyed and couldn't wait to show Alexis. They gave her a big hug and a basket of their best garlic as a thank you.

The twins learned a lot from their garlic-growing adventure:

Soil Tests Are Essential: Knowing what's in your soil and what it needs is crucial for growing healthy plants.

Organic Matter and Worms Are Vital: Organic matter improves soil structure and provides nutrients, while worms help break it down and keep the soil healthy.

Patience and Persistence Pay Off: Improving soil health takes time, but the results are worth the effort.

Row and Sen's story reminds us that with a little knowledge, kindness, and a lot of hard work, even beginners can grow something amazing. And who knows? Maybe next year, they'll try growing something new. But for now, they were content with their garlic, which they proudly shared with family and friends, knowing they had truly cultivated something special."

Alexis Helping Twin Boys Grow Amazing Garlic


GroEat Farm, LLC is a small, sustainable family farm located in Bozeman, Montana.  We’re located in the beautiful Hyalite foothills, below the Gallatin Mountain Range.  The hardneck varieties that grow at our farm (Ophioscorodon) flourish here, due to the combination of the cold winters, temperate summers, moist spring, and the dynamic alluvial soils, washed down from the Gallatin Range (comprised of Archean metamorphics, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, and Eocene volcanics).  Not only are the GroEat Hardneck garlic healthy and beautiful, the flavor’s are robust and delicate.


Our mission at GroEat Farm, LLC is to grow premium hardneck garlic, preserve garlic varieties for the future (through propagation), and to provide others with the opportunity to grow garlic from our seed.   We help home gardeners, chefs, small-scale commercial growers, gardeners, plant nurseries, and anyone else looking for better hardneck garlic.  We are continuing a very long tradition of growing quality gourmet and seed hardneck garlic.   

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